Applied behavior analysis research paper
A statewide survey assessing practitioners' use and perceived utility of functional assessment: Functional Assessment Survey [Electronic version]. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48 4 , Steinhilber, J. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 4 , Dudley, L. Decreasing rumination using a starchy food satiation procedure. Behavioral Interventions, 17 1 , Moher, C. Non-generalized and generalized conditioned reinforcers: establishment and validation [Electronic version]. Behavioral Interventions, 23 1 , Selznick Gurdin, L. A critical analysis of data-based studies examining behavioral interventions with children and adolescents with brain injuries [Electronic version].
Behavioral Interventions, 20 1 , Moore, K. Behavioral Interventions, 30 2 , Pelletier, K. Behavioral Interventions, 25 4 , McKay, J.
Behavior Analysis in Practice, 7 2 , How can I access an article by its name? Let's use this article as an example.
Beaulieu, Lauren, and Jaime L. Some articles can be found quickly and easily; others cannot. It may take some patience. Most articles in scholarly journals except for the editorials, commentary, letters and other short sections have been through the peer review process. So they have passed a test for quality before they reach the reader. Peer Review is a way to ensure quality of writing and research. They would have to spend hours reading poorly written articles to get to the good ones.
The same information can be viewed via videos or slides. The ABA approach to promoting success seeking is to apply positive reinforcement contingencies strategically instead of negative reinforcement or punishment. However, punishment contingencies are relatively easy to implement on a large scale. Just pass a law and enforce it. And when monetary fines are paid for transgressions, the controlling agency obtains financial support for continuing its enforcement efforts. In many areas of large-scale behavior management, including transportation safety, control by negative consequences is seemingly the only feasible approach.
As a result, the side effects of aggressive driving and road rage are relatively common and observed by anyone who drives. Most of us have experienced the unpleasant emotional reactions of seeing the flashing blue light of a police vehicle in our rearview mirror—another example of classical conditioning.
Various positive reinforcement contingencies need to be applied and evaluated with regard to their ability to offset the negative side effects of the existing negative reinforcement contingencies. Even our verbal behavior directed toward another person, perhaps as a statement of genuine approval or appreciation for a task well done, can influence motivation in ways that increase perceptions of personal freedom and empowerment. However, words of approval are not as common as words of disapproval.
Thus, although ABA change agents focus their intervention on observable behavior, they are concerned about attitude, as reflected in the next principle. This perspective also reflects a realization that intervention procedures influence feeling states, which can be pleasant or unpleasant, desirable or undesirable. Internal feelings or attitudes are influenced indirectly by the type of behavior-focused intervention procedure implemented, and such relationships require careful consideration by the developers and managers of a behavior-change process.
The rationale for using more positive than negative consequences to motivate behavior is based on the differential feeling states provoked by positive reinforcement versus punishment procedures. Similarly, the way we implement an intervention process can increase or decrease feelings of empowerment, build or destroy trust, and cultivate or inhibit a sense of teamwork or belonging Geller, , Thus, it is important to assess feeling states or perceptions occurring concomitantly with an intervention process. Hence, decisions regarding which ABA intervention to implement and how to refine existing intervention procedures should be based on both objective behavioral observations and subjective evaluations of feeling states.
Social validity assessment includes the use of rating scales, interviews, and focus-group discussions to assess a the societal significance of the intervention goals, b the social appropriateness of the procedures, and c the societal importance or clinical significance of the intervention effects Geller, A comprehensive social validity evaluation addresses the four basic components of an ABA intervention process: selection, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination.
Selection refers to the importance or priority of the behavioral problem and the population targeted for change. Addressing the large-scale problems of transportation safety, global warming, prison management, identity theft, child abuse, and medical errors is clearly important, but given limited resources, which issue should receive priority?
The answer to this question depends partly on the availability of a cost-effective intervention. Assessing the social validity of the implementation stage of ABA intervention includes evaluating the behavior-change goals and procedures of the behavior-change process. How acceptable is the plan to potential participants and other parties, even those tangentially associated with the intervention?
The social validity of the evaluation stage refers, of course, to the impact of the intervention process, which includes estimates of the costs and benefits of an intervention as well as measures of participant or consumer satisfaction. The numbers or scores obtained from various measurement devices e.
Applied behavior analysis
They also need to be understood by the people who use them. If they are not, the evaluation scheme does not provide useful feedback and cannot lead to continuous improvement. Meaningless or misunderstood evaluation numbers also limit the dissemination potential and large-scale application of an intervention.
More specifically, intervention researchers and scholars justify their efforts and obtain financial support based on the scientific rigor of their methods and the statistical significance of their results. Rarely do these scholars address the real-world dissemination challenges of their findings. One solution to this dilemma is to teach the real-world users of a behavior-change process how to conduct their own evaluations of intervention impact, which brings us to the next ABA principle.
The occurrence of specific behaviors can be objectively observed and measured before and after the implementation of an intervention process. This application of the scientific method provides feedback with which behavioral improvement can be shaped. To teach this principle of ABA to change agents e. This process represents the scientific method ABA practitioners have used for decades to demonstrate the impact of a particular behavior-change technique cf. Geller, , Avoiding certain unwanted behaviors often requires the occurrence of alternative behaviors, and therefore an intervention target might be behavior to substitute for particular undesirable behavior.
On the other hand, a desirable target behavior can be defined independently of undesired behavior. Defining and evaluating ongoing behavior is facilitated with the development of a behavioral checklist to use during observations. The development of such behavioral definitions enables an invaluable learning experience. When people get involved in deriving a behavioral checklist, they own a training process that can improve human dynamics on both the outside behaviors and the inside feelings and attitudes of people.
When people observe one another for certain desirable or undesirable behaviors, they realize everyone performs undesirable behavior, sometimes without even realizing it. The observation stage is not a fault-finding procedure; it is a fact-finding learning process to facilitate the discovery of behaviors and conditions that need to be changed or continued in order to be competent at a task.
Thus, no behavioral observation need be made without awareness and explicit permission from the person being observed. Observers should be open to learning as much if not more from the process as they expect to teach from completing the behavioral checklist. There is not one generic observation procedure for every situation, and the customization and refinement of a process for a particular setting never stops.
It is often beneficial to begin the observation process with a limited number of behaviors and a relatively simple checklist, which reduces the possibility of people feeling overwhelmed in the beginning. Starting small also enables the broadest range of voluntary participation, and provides numerous opportunities to improve the process successively by expanding coverage of both behaviors and work areas.
Applied Behavioral Analysis Essay
Details on how to design and use a critical behavior checklist CBC for constructive observation and feedback are given in several texts e. The critical behavior checklist for driving. I used the CBC depicted in Figure I knew better. We needed to develop and apply a CBC. Through one-on-one discussion, Krista and I derived a list of critical driving behaviors and then agreed on specific definitions for each item. My university students practiced using this CBC a few times with various drivers, resulting in a refined list of behavioral definitions.
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After discussing the revised list of behaviors and their definitions with Krista, I felt ready to implement the second stage of DO IT—observation. I asked my daughter to drive me to the university—about nine miles from home—to pick up some papers. I overtly recorded observations on the CBC during both legs of this roundtrip.
When returning home, I totaled the safe and at-risk checkmarks and calculated the percentage of safe behaviors. Her percentage of safe driving was 85 percent, and I considered this quite good for our first time. Note my emphasis on achieving safe rather than avoiding at risk. To my surprise, she did not seem impressed with her percent-safe score. Rather, she pushed me to tell her what she did wrong. This initial experience with the CBC for driving was enlightening in two aspects. This perspective activates failure avoiding over success seeking, an undesirable influence, as discussed above.
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A second important outcome from this CBC experience was the realization that people can be unaware of their at-risk behavior, and only through objective behavior-based feedback can it be changed. Krista did not readily accept my corrective feedback regarding her four at-risk behaviors. In fact, she emphatically denied she did not always come to a complete stop at intersections with stop signs.
However, she was soon convinced of her error when I showed her my data sheet and my comments regarding the particular intersection where there was no traffic and she made only a rolling stop before turning right. Of course, I reminded Krista she used her turn signal at every intersection, and she should be proud of that behavior. I wanted to make this behavior-based coaching process a positive, success-seeking experience, so it was necessary to emphasize the behaviors I observed her do correctly.
As reflected in Principle 2, intervention means changing external conditions of the behavioral context or system in order to make desirable behavior more likely than undesirable behavior.
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When designing interventions, Principles 3 and 4 are critical: The most motivating consequences are soon, certain, and sizable Principle 3 , and positive consequences are preferable to negative consequences Principle 4. The process of observing and recording the frequency of desirable and undesirable behavior on a checklist provides an opportunity to give individuals and groups valuable behavior-based feedback.